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What are the catalysts for polyurethane rigid foam and gel reactions?

There are a variety of catalysts used for polyurethane rigid foam reactions and gel reactions, some examples of which are listed below:
Foaming reaction catalysts:
Organotin compounds, such as ethylenetrimethylene tin (T-9) and ethylenetriethyltin (T-12).
Organotin-cobalt composite catalysts, such as ethylenetrimethyltin-cobalt (T-9/Co).
Organotin-acid catalysts, such as ethylenetrimethyltin-benzoic acid (T-9/BzOH).
Phosphate catalysts such as triphenylphosphine (TPP) and tris(2-methylpropyl)phosphine.
Gel reaction catalysts:
Organotin compounds such as di(2-methylpropyl)dimethyltin (T-12) and ethylidenetrimethyltin (T-9).
Organotin-acid catalysts such as ethylenetrimethyltin-benzoic acid (T-9/BzOH).
Amino acid catalysts, e.g. L-phenylalanine, L-aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid.
Ammonium metaphosphate catalysts, e.g., tributyl metaphosphate, triphenyl metaphosphate, etc.
Different polymerisation reactions may require the use of different catalysts, and the specific selection should be made according to the type of reaction and requirements. In addition, there are many types of polyurethane catalysts, the above are only some of them, and there may be other types of catalysts in practical applications. When selecting a catalyst, it is recommended to consider its performance, cost, environmental friendliness and other factors in order to achieve the best reaction effect.
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